Msgpack in Flask-RESTful

Posted on January 8, 2017 by Kendrick Tan

Recently I’ve been building a RESTful microservice, one the the requirements that the microservice has is that it has MessagePack support (it’s like JSON but smaller). Flask doesn’t support MessagePack by default, and the documentation on extending Flask for custom Request types was lacking at the time of this writing, and as such I’ve decided to write a post to serve as a guideline to whomever who’s running into the same issue.

I’ll be using Flask and Flask-RESTful in this tutorial.

Extending Flask’s Request Class

Unfortunately since Flask-RESTful inherits its Request parsing from Flask, we can’t just extend on Flask-RESTful and expect it to be able to parse our custom Request type. As such, we’ll need to subclass Flask to specify our custom Request class (which is also a subclass of Flask’s Request class).

from flask import Flask
from flask import Request, _request_ctx_stack

class RequestWithMsgPack(Request):
    """
    Extending on Flask's Request class to support msgpack mimetype
    """
    pass

class FlaskWithMsgPackRequest(Flask):
    """
    Extending on Flask to specify the usage of our custom Request class
    """
    request_class = RequestWithMsgPack

Adding MessagePack Parsing Functionality

Next thing we need to do is write a custom MessagePack parser in our custom RequestWithMsgPack class.

Important: Note down the function used to parse the custom Request class you have in mind, in our case its the def msgpack(...) function. This will be discussed later on.

import msgpack
from flask import Flask
from flask import Request, _request_ctx_stack
from flask.wrappers import _get_data
from werkzeug.exceptions import BadRequest


class RequestWithMsgPack(Request):
    """
    Extending on Flask's Request class to support msgpack mimetype
    """

    @property
    def is_msgpack(self):
        """
        Checks if request is msgpack type or not.
        """
        mt = self.mimetype
        return mt.startswith('application/') and mt.endswith('msgpack')

    def msgpack(self, force=False, silent=False):
        """
        NOTE: This function name needs to be the same name specified on the
        'location' variable of the request parser. e.g.
        parser.add_argument('data', location='msgpack') `location needs to have the same
                                                        name as the callable function
        Parses the incoming request data and decodes it from msgpack to python
        __dict__ type. By default this function will return `None` if the mimetype
        is not `application/msgpack` but can be overridden by the ``force`` parameter.
        If parsing fails the
        :param force: if set to ``True`` the mimetype is ignored
        :param silent: if set to ``True`` this method will fail silently and return ``None``
        """
        if not (force or self.is_msgpack):
            return None

        # Convert to utf-8 by default
        request_charset = self.mimetype_params.get('charset', 'utf-8')

        try:
            data = _get_data(self, False)
            rv = msgpack.unpackb(data, encoding=request_charset)

        except ValueError as e:
            if silent:
                return None
            else:
                rv = self.on_msgpack_loading_failed(e)

        return rv

    def on_msgpack_loading_failed(self, e):
        """
        Called if decoding of msgpack data failed
        """
        ctx = _request_ctx_stack.top

        if ctx is not None and ctx.app.config.get('DEBUG', False):
            raise BadRequest('Failed to decode msgpack object: {0}'.format(e))

        raise BadRequest()

class FlaskWithMsgPackRequest(Flask):
    """
    Extending on Flask to specify the usage of our custom Request class
    """
    request_class = RequestWithMsgPack

Using MessagePack Parsing in Flask-RESTful Routes

Remember the notice from before to note down the function used to parse the custom Request class? It’ll now be demonstrated on Flask-RESTful’s Router.

To invoke our custom Request class in Flask-RESTful, we need specify the name of our function defined above as the location parameter in the RequestParser (line 14). For example, if we renamed our msgpack function above to custom_msgpack, then instead of location='msgpack', it’ll be location='custom_msgpack on line 14.

class HelloMsgPack(Resource):
    """
    Class containing our endpoints
    """

    def get(self):
        return {'hello': 'You sent a GET request'}

    def post(self):
        parse = reqparse.RequestParser()
        # Important: define your 'location' to whatever function you
        # defined in your custom Request class
        parse.add_argument('data', location='msgpack', help='data in msgpack form', required=True)

        args = parse.parse_args()

        return {'Received data': args['data']}

Putting them together

Since we’ve just subclasses Flask and Flask-RESTful, the way they’re used is still the same, just with added functionality.

from flask_restful import Api

app = FlaskWithMsgPackRequest(__name__)
api = Api(app)

api.add_resource(HelloMsgPack, '/')

if __name__ == "__main__":
    app.run(debug=False)

Final Thoughts

I’ve tried to keep this tutorial as simple as possible and omitted the Response of MessagePack type objects as it is well documented at the time of writing. The boilerplate project does contain examples on how to write custom Response classes if a reference is needed.