# Kendrick

## Motivation

RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman) is one of the first public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission. In such a cryptosystem, the encryption key is public and is different from the decryption key which is kept secret.

If I wanted to comprehend zero knowledge proofs, then understanding the grand-daddy of public-key cryptosystems is a must.

## Background Maths

### Exponential Rules 1

\begin{align} \label{eq:exponent_rule} g^{a-b} &= \dfrac{g^a}{g^b} \newline g^{a+b} &= g^a g^b \newline {(g^a)}^b &= g^{ab} \newline (g^a\ mod\ p)^{b}\ mod\ p &= g^{ab}\ mod\ p \end{align}

### Division Theorem 2

The division theorem gives us a formal way to proof the equivalence relationship between the divident, divisor, quotient, and the remainder. i.e.

\begin{align} divident &\equiv quotient \cdot divisor + remainder \newline n &\equiv k \cdot q + r \end{align}

Example: $9/2 = 4 \ remainder \ 1$

We can write the equation as $9 = 2⋅4 + 1$.

### Modulo Arithmetic

$a = b \ mod \ n$ states that $a$ and $b$ both have the same remainder after division with $n$.

Modular arithemtic and the divisor theorem are closely related – say we have $k = 2, q = 7, r = 3$, plugging those values into $n = kq + r$ gives us $n = 17$.

We can write that as $17 = 3 \ mod \ 7$, or $17 / 7 = 2 \ remainder \ 3$.

We can also go backwards:

$17 = 3 \ mod \ 7$

$17 = k⋅7 + 3$

More generally:

\begin{align} n &= r \space mod \space q \newline \label{eq:modulo_division_format} n &= k ⋅ q + r \end{align}

### Greatest Common Divisor (gcd)

The greatest common divisor between two numbers is the largest integer that will divide both numbers.

Example: gcd(3, 9) = 3.

If one of the numbers in the gcd is a prime number, then the gcd will always be 1.

### Multiplicative Inverse

A multiplicative inverse for a number $x$, denoted by $x^{-1}$, is a number when multiplied by $x$ yields the multiplicative identity $1$.

$x⋅x^{-1} = 1$

In modulo arithmetic, only numbers whose $gcd(x, n) = 1$ has a multiplicative inverse, i.e there exists

\begin{align} x \cdot x^{-1} = 1\ mod\ n,\ \forall gcd(x, n) = 1 \label{eq:multiplicative_inverse_modulus} \end{align}

### Euler's Totient Function

In number theory, Euler's totient function counts the positive integers up to a given integer n that are relatively prime to n.

In other words, the totient function (often represented as $(\phi)$ for number $n$ calculates the number of integers between $2$ and $n$ whose gcd is equal to $1$.

More concretely in code:

def totient(n):
total = 0
for i in range(2, n):
if gcd(i, n) == 1:
total = total + 1


If $n$ is a prime number, then $ϕ(n) = n - 1$.

One important thing to note is that multiplication in the totient function is associative:

\begin{align} \phi(a \cdot b) &= \phi(a) \cdot \phi(b) \label{eq:totient_multiplication_associative} \end{align}

This will come into use when we calculate $ϕ(n)$ where $n = pq$.

### Euler's Theorem 3

\begin{align} a^{ϕ(n)} ≡ 1 \space mod \space n \label{eq:eulers_theorem} \end{align}

The following formula above holds true if the gcd between $n$ and $a$ is $1$ (a.k.a coprime).

## RSA

### Introduction

Say we have message $M$, with public key $Pk$, and secret key $Sk$, we can encrypt $M$ with $Pk$ as cipher $C$ and decrypt $C$ with $Sk$.

### Algorithm

1. Generate two randomly large prime numbers $p$, and $q$.
2. Calculate $n = pq$.
3. Calculate totient of n $ϕ(n) = (p - 1)⋅(q - 1)$.
4. Generate public key $e$ that satifies the two constraints:
• $3 < e < ϕ(n)$
• $gcd(e, ϕ(n)) = 1$
5. Calculate the multiplicative inverse of $e, d$ (this will be the private key) such that $ed = 1 \ mod \ ϕ(n)$
6. The generated public key is $(e, n)$, and the generated private key is $(d, n)$.
7. Given message $m$, $m^{e} \ mod \ n$ yields the encrypted message, and $m^{ed} \ mod \ n$ yields the decrypted message.
• This is because $ed = 1 \ mod \ n$
• Therefore, $m^{ed} \ mod \ n = m^1 \ mod \ n$, giving us our original message

### Why RSA Works

#### Calculating Modulus   $n$

Our modulus, $n$ is calculated by multiplying the two prime numbers $p$ and $q$. This step sort of acts like a one way function, easy to calculate $n$ given $p$ and $q$, but hard to compute $p$ and $q$ given $n$.

Whats scary to me is that computing the prime factors $p$ and $q$ is only considered a hard enough problem, meaning that if someone found out how to calculate $p$ and $q$ given $n$ with polynomial complexity, all encryption as we know it (e.g. SSL) will break.

This is essential to RSA's security as given a composite number ($n$), it is considered a hard problem to determine the prime factors ($p$, $q$).

#### Totient Function   $ϕ(n)$

$ϕ(n) = (p - 1)(q - 1) \ when \ p,q \ is \ prime$. This is because the totient of a prime number $p$ is simply $p - 1$, and that multiplication is associative in the totient function (\ref{eq:totient_multiplication_associative}).

#### Public Key   $e$

Public Key $e$ is a number that is randomly chosen between $3 < e < ϕ(n)$, and has to satisfy $gcd(e, ϕ(n)) = 1$. We need $gcd(e, ϕ(n)) = 1$ in order for a multiplicative inverse (our secret key) to exist (\ref{eq:multiplicative_inverse_modulus}).

#### Secret Key   $d$

The secret key $d$ is calculated using the formula: $d⋅e = 1 \ mod \ ϕ(n)$. This process can be calculated using the extended euclidean algorithm 4 given parameters $e \ and \ ϕ(n)$

#### Why RSA satifies proof of correctness even though the key generation is based on   $mod \ ϕ(n)$ and not $mod \ n$

Given message $m$, public key $e$, and secret key $d$.

To encrypt a message we do: \begin{align} m^{e} \space mod \space n \end{align} And to decrypt said encrypted message, we do: \begin{align} m^{ed} \space mod \space n \label{eq:decrypted_message_formula} \end{align} Our key generation uses the following formula: \begin{align} d \cdot e = 1 \space mod \space \phi(n) \end{align} Which can be rewritten as (re: equation \ref{eq:modulo_division_format}): \begin{align} d \cdot e = k \cdot \phi(n) + 1 \label{eq:modulus_division_substitute} \end{align} Substituting equation \ref{eq:modulus_division_substitute} into equation \ref{eq:decrypted_message_formula} yields us: \begin{align} m^{k \cdot \phi(n) + 1} \space & mod \space n \end{align} Which can be rewritten as (re: exponential rules \ref{eq:exponent_rule}): \begin{align} (m^{\phi(n)})^k \cdot m^1 \space & mod \space n \end{align} Rewriting using Euler's Theorem ($a^{ϕ(n)} = 1 \ mod \ n$, equation \ref{eq:eulers_theorem}) gives us: \begin{align} (1 \space mod \space n)^k \cdot m^1 \space & mod \space n \newline 1^k \cdot m^1 \space & mod \space n \newline \end{align} And so, we have just proved that RSA satisfies the proof of correctness even though the key generation is based on $mod\ \phi(n)$ and not $n$ \begin{align} \therefore m^{e \cdot d} \space mod \space n = m^1 \space mod \space n \end{align}

## Conclusion

You don't need to be a math wizard to understand RSA ;-)

## Example

"""
2019-01-06 Kendrick Tan
RSA

Rivest–Shamir–Adleman (RSA) is a process that allows
two parties to exchange secret information within
each other over an insecure line (e.g. the internet)

Party A sends Party B it's public key.
Party B uses the public key to encrypt the message they want to send
Party A receives encrypted message, decrypts it using their private key
"""

def gcd(a, b):
"""
Greatest Common Divisor
"""
m = min(a, b)

for i in range(m, 0, -1):
if a % i == 0 and b % i == 0:
return i

return 1

def xgcd(a, b):
"""
Extended Euclidean Distance

return (g, x, y) such that a*x + b*y = g = gcd(x, y)
"""
x0, x1, y0, y1 = 0, 1, 1, 0
while a != 0:
q, b, a = b // a, a, b % a
y0, y1 = y1, y0 - q * y1
x0, x1 = x1, x0 - q * x1
return b, x0, y0

def encrypt(msg, e, n):
return ''.join([chr(ord(c)**e % n) for c in msg])

def decrypt(msg, d, n):
return ''.join([chr(ord(c)**d % n) for c in msg])

## 1. Choose two distinct prime numbers p and q
p = 23
q = 31

## 2. Calculate n = p*q
n = p*q

## 3. Calculate the totient: phi(n) = (p - 1)*(q - 1)
phi_n = (p - 1) * (q - 1)

## 4.1 Choose integer e such that 1 < e < phi_n
e = 7
assert 1 < e < phi_n

## 4.2 Assert greatest-common-divisor (gcd) between e and phi_n = 1
## i.e. e and phi_n share no factors other than 1
assert gcd(e, phi_n) == 1

## 5. Compure d to satisgy the congruence relation d * e = 1 mod phi_n
## i.e. de = 1 + k * phi_n

## goal is to find d such that e*d = 1 mod phi_n
## EED calculates x and y such that ax + by = gcd(a, b)
## Let a = e, b = phi_n, therefore:
## gcd(e, phi_n) = 1
## is equal to
## e*x + phi_n*y = 1
## take mod phi_n
## (e*x + phi_ny*y) mod phi_n = 1 mod phi_n
## = e*x = 1 mod phi_n
_, d, _ = xgcd(e, phi_n)

assert (d * e % phi_n) == 1

## 6. Encrypt a message using the public key (e)
## c = m**e % n
orig_msg = 'hello world'
enc_msg = encrypt(orig_msg, e, n)
assert orig_msg != enc_msg

## 7. Decrypt number using the private key (d)
## m = c**e % n
dec_msg = decrypt(enc_msg, d, n)

assert orig_msg == dec_msg

print(f'original message: {orig_msg}')
print(f'encrypted message: {enc_msg}')
print(f'decrypted message: {dec_msg}')

"""
This works because we know that:

d*e = 1 mod phi_n
d*e = k*phi_n + 1

c = m**e mod n
m = c**d mod n (sub c)
= (m**e mod n)**d mod n
= m**(d * e) mod n
= m**(k*phi_n + 1) mod n
= (m**(phi_n)**k)*m**1 mod n # note: m^(phi_n) = 1 mod n
= (1 mod n)**k * m**1 mod n
= 1**k * m**1 mod n
= m mod n

https://crypto.stackexchange.com/questions/1789/why-is-rsa-encryption-key-based-on-modulo-varphin-rather-than-modulo-n
"""